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  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    2008 436

    Pathophysiology and Treatment of Gout Arthritis; including Gout Arthritis of Hip Joint: A Literature Review

    Yonghan Cha, MD , Jongwon Lee, MD , Wonsik Choy, MD , Jae Sun Lee, PhD*,† , Hyun Hee Lee, MD , Dong-Sik Chae, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 1-11
    Gout is triggered by the accumulation of uric acid in the body, leading to hyperuricemia. Genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors can influence this condition. Excessive uric acid buildup results in the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which precipitate in specific areas of the body, including the joints, where they can cause symptoms of gout. While the acute and chronic symptoms of gout have been well-documented, diagnosis of gout affecting the hip joint poses significant challenges. The global incidence of gout, the most prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis, is on the rise. Evaluation of the clinical signs, laboratory results, and imaging results is generally required for diagnosis of gout in cases where MSU crystals have not been detected. Hyperuricemia is considered a primary cause of arthritis symptoms, and comprehensive guidelines for treatment are available. Therefore, the choice of medication is straightforward, and moderate effectiveness of treatment has been demonstrated. Gout is a chronic disease, requiring lifelong uric acid-lowering medications, thus application of a treatment strategy based on the target blood uric acid concentration is necessary. Consequently, cases of gout will likely be observed more frequently by hip surgeons in clinical scenarios in the future. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pathophysiology of gout and subsequently examine recent advances in diagnostic methods and therapeutic agents based on an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. In addition, literature on gout-related issues affecting the hip joint, providing a useful reference for hip surgeons is examined.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    529 374

    Robotic-assisted Total Hip Arthroplasty and Spinopelvic Parameters: A Review

    Steven J. Rice, DO, MS , Anthony D’Abarno, DO* , Hue H. Luu, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 87-100
    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis, and the popularity of the direct anterior approach has increased due to more rapid recovery and increased stability. Instability, commonly caused by component malposition, remains a significant concern. The dynamic relationship between the pelvis and lumbar spine, deemed spinopelvic motion, is considered an important factor in stability. Various parameters are used in evaluating spinopelvic motion. Understanding spinopelvic motion is critical, and executing a precise plan for positioning the implant can be difficult with manual instrumentation. Robotic and/or navigation systems have been developed in the effort to enhance THA outcomes and for implementing spinopelvic parameters. These systems can be classified into three categories: X-ray/fluoroscopy-based, imageless, and computed tomography (CT)-based. Each system has advantages and limitations. When using CT-based systems, preoperative CT scans are used to assist with preoperative planning and intraoperative execution, providing feedback on implant position and restoration of hip biomechanics within a functional safe zone developed according to each patient’s specific spinopelvic parameters. Several studies have demonstrated the accuracy and reproducibility of robotic systems with regard to implant positioning and leg length discrepancy. Some studies have reported better radiographic and clinical outcomes with use of robotic-assisted THA. However, clinical outcomes comparable to those for manual THA have also been reported. Robotic systems offer advantages in terms of accuracy, precision, and potentially reduced rates of dislocation. Additional research, including conduct of randomized controlled trials, will be required in order to evaluate the long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of robotic-assisted THA.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    496 317

    Spinopelvic Motion: A Simplified Approach to a Complex Subject

    Cale A. Pagan, MD , Theofilos Karasavvidis, MD , Jonathan M. Vigdorchik, MD , Charles A. DeCook, MD*

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 77-86
    Knowledge of the relationship between the hip and spine is essential in the effort to minimize instability and improve outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). A detailed yet straightforward preoperative imaging workup can provide valuable information on pelvic positioning, which may be helpful for optimum placement of the acetabular cup. For a streamlined preoperative assessment of THA candidates, classification systems with a capacity for providing a more personalized approach to performance of THA have been introduced. Familiarity with these systems and their clinical application is important in the effort to optimize component placement and reduce the risk of instability. Looking ahead, the principles of the hip-spine relationship are being integrated using emerging innovative technologies, promising further streamlining of the evaluation process.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    515 297

    Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty with Mechanical Prophylaxis in Hong Kong Chinese

    Daniel Wai-Yip Wong, MBBS, MPH, ChM, FRCSEd , Qunn-Jid Lee, MBChB, FRCSEd , Chi-Kin Lo, MBBS, MSc, FRCSEd , Kenneth Wing-Kin Law, MBChB, FRCSEd , Dawn Hei Wong, BJC (Hons)

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 108-119
    Purpose: The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) without chemoprophylaxis could be as high as 50% in Caucasians. However, according to several subsequent studies, the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in Asians was much lower. The routine use of chemoprophylaxis, which could potentially cause increased bleeding, infection, and wound complications, has been questioned in low-incidence populations. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of VTE after primary THA without chemoprophylaxis in an Asian population using a fast-track rehabilitation protocol and to verify the safety profile for use of ‘mechanical prophylaxis alone’ in patients with standard risk of VTE.
    Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 542 Hong Kong Chinese patients who underwent primary THA without chemoprophylaxis. All patients received intermittent pneumatic compression and graduated compression stockings as mechanical prophylaxis. Multimodal pain management was applied in order to facilitate early mobilisation. Routine duplex ultrasonography was performed between the fourth and seventh postoperative day for detection of proximal DVT.
    Results: All patients were Chinese (mean age, 63.0±11.9 years). Six patients developed proximal DVT (incidence rate, 1.1%). None of the patients had symptomatic or fatal pulmonary embolism.
    Conclusion: The incidence of VTE after primary THA without chemical prophylaxis can be low in Asian populations when following a fast-track rehabilitation protocol. Mechanical prophylaxis alone can be regarded as a reasonably safe practice in terms of a balanced benefit-to-risk ratio for Asian patients with standard risk of VTE.
  • Original ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    825 295

    Treatment of Osteoporosis after Hip Fracture: Survey of the Korean Hip Society

    Jung-Wee Park, MD , Je-Hyun Yoo, MD* , Young-Kyun Lee, MD , Jong-Seok Park, MD , Ye-Yeon Won, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 62-69
    Purpose: To assess current practice in the treatment of osteoporosis in patients who underwent treatment for hip fracture in South Korea.
    Materials and Methods: A survey of 97 members of the Korean Hip Society, orthopedic hip surgeons who administer treatment for hip fractures in South Korea, was conducted. The survey was conducted for assessment of demographic data and perceptions regarding the management of osteoporosis in patients who have undergone treatment for hip fracture. Analysis of the data was performed using descriptive statistical methods.
    Results: The majority of participants were between the age of 41 and 50 years, and 74% were practicing in tertiary hospitals. Testing for serum vitamin D levels (82%) was the most commonly performed laboratory test. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed for more than 80% of patients by 47% and 52% of participants, respectively. Denosumab was the most commonly used first-line treatment option for osteoporosis in hip fracture patients. Bisphosphonate was most often perceived as the cause of atypical femoral fractures, and the most appropriate time for reoperation was postoperative 12 months. Teriparatide was most preferred after cessation of bisphosphonate and only prescribing calcium and vitamin D was most common in high-risk patients for prevention of atypical femoral fracture.
    Conclusion: The results of this study that surveyed orthopedic hip surgeons showed that most participants followed the current strategy for management of osteoporosis. Because the end result of osteoporosis is a bone fracture, active involvement of orthopedic surgeons is important in treating this condition.
  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    811 272

    The Value of Computed Tomography Scan in Three-dimensional Planning and Intraoperative Navigation in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Fabio Mancino, MD , Andreas Fontalis, MD, MSc (Res), MRCS (Eng) , Ahmed Magan, BM, BSc (Hons), MRCS, FRCS (Tra&Orth) , Ricci Plastow, MBChB, FRCS (Eng) , Fares S. Haddad, BSc, MD (Res), MCh (Orth), FRCS (Orth), FFSEM

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 26-36
    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a frequently performed procedure; the objective is restoration of native hip biomechanics and achieving functional range of motion (ROM) through precise positioning of the prosthetic components. Advanced three-dimensional (3D) imaging and computed tomography (CT)-based navigation are valuable tools in both the preoperative planning and intraoperative execution. The aim of this study is to provide a thorough overview on the applications of CT scans in both the preoperative and intraoperative settings of primary THA. Preoperative planning using CT-based 3D imaging enables greater accuracy in prediction of implant sizes, leading to enhancement of surgical workflow with optimization of implant inventory. Surgeons can perform a more thorough assessment of posterior and anterior acetabular wall coverage, acetabular osteophytes, anatomical landmarks, and thus achieve more functional implant positioning. Intraoperative CT-based navigation can facilitate precise execution of the preoperative plan, to attain optimal positioning of the prosthetic components to avoid impingement. Medial reaming can be minimized preserving native bone stock, which can enable restoration of femoral, acetabular, and combined offsets. In addition, it is associated with greater accuracy in leg length adjustment, a critical factor in patients’ postoperative satisfaction. Despite the higher costs and radiation exposure, which currently limits its widespread adoption, it offers many benefits, and the increasing interest in robotic surgery has facilitated its integration into routine practice. Conducting additional research on ultra-low-dose CT scans and examining the potential for translation of 3D imaging into improved clinical outcomes will be necessary to warrant its expanded application.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    458 271

    Management of Severe Bone Defects in Femoral Revision following Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Yicheng Li, PhD , Li Cao, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 101-107
    Treatment of femoral bone defects continues to be a challenge in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA); therefore, meticulous preoperative evaluation of patients and surgical planning are required. This review provides a concise synopsis of the etiology, classification, treatment strategy, and prosthesis selection in relation to femoral bone loss in revision THA. A search of literature was conducted for identification of research articles related to classification of bone loss, management of femoral revision, and comparison of different types of stems. Findings of a thorough review of the included articles were as follows: (1) the Paprosky classification system is used most often when defining femoral bone loss, (2) a primary-length fully coated monoblock femoral component is recommended for treatment of types I or II bone defects, (3) use of an extensively porouscoated stem and a modular fluted tapered stem is recommended for management of types III or IV bone defects, and (4) use of an impaction grafting technique is another option for improvement of bone stock, and allograft prosthesis composite and proximal femoral replacement can be applied by experienced surgeons, in selected cases, as a final salvage solution. Stems with a tapered design are gradually replacing components with a cylindrical design as the first choice for femoral revision; however, further confirmation regarding the advantages and disadvantages of modular and nonmodular stems will be required through conduct of higher-level comparative studies.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    366 259

    Comparison of Short Curved Stems and Standard-length Single Wedged Stems for Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Chan Young Lee, MD , Sheng-Yu Jin, MD , Ji Hoon Choi, MD , Taek-Rim Yoon, MD, PhD , Kyung-Soon Park, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 120-128
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes with use of short-curved stems versus standard-length single wedged stems over a minimum follow-up period of five years.
    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of primary total hip arthroplasties performed using the Fitmore® stem (127 hips, 122 patients) and the M/L taper® stem (195 hips, 187 patients) between October 2012 and June 2014 was conducted. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were obtained for evaluation over a minimum follow-up period of five years.
    Results: In both the Fitmore® and M/L taper® groups, the mean Harris hip score improved from 52.4 and 48.9 preoperatively to 93.3 and 94.5 at the final follow-up, respectively (P=0.980). The mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores also improved from 73.3 and 76.8 preoperatively to 22.9 and 25.6 at the final follow-up, respectively (P=0.465). Fifteen hips (Fitmore®: 14 hips; M/L taper®: one hip, P<0.001) developed intraoperative cracks and were treated simultaneously with cerclage wiring. Radiography showed a radiolucent line in 24 hips in the Fitmore® group and 12 hips in the M/L taper® group (P=0.125). Cortical hypertrophy was detected in 29 hips (Fitmore® group: 28 hips; M/L taper® group: one hip, P<0.001).
    Conclusion: Similarly favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved with use of both short-curved stems and standard-length single wedged stems. However, higher cortical hypertrophy and a higher rate of femoral crack were observed with use of Fitmore® stems.
  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    936 254

    Total Hip Arthroplasty in Protrusio Acetabuli: A Systematic Review

    Sajid Ansari, MCh , Kshitij Gupta, MS , Tushar Gupta, MS , Balgovind S. Raja, MCh* , Pranav J., MBBS , Roop Bhushan Kalia, MS

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 12-25
    Protrusio acetabuli, or abnormal protrusion of the femoral head into the acetabulum, requires performance of a total hip arthroplasty (THA) for which various reconstruction techniques and outcomes have been described. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence, evaluate treatment efficacy, compare surgical techniques, and identify topics for future research along with improving evidence-based decision-making, improving patient outcomes in the management of this condition. A thorough systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and Scopus library was conducted, and articles describing techniques of THA for treatment of protrusion acetabuli were extracted. The initial search generated 751 results. After exclusion, 18 articles were included. Of these, eight were prospective studies and 10 were retrospective. Surgery was performed on 783 hips with a mean age of 60 years; 80% of females who mostly had inflammatory arthritis were followed up for 8.86 years (range, 2-15.4 years). Good outcomes have been achieved with THA using uncemented cups with bone graft; however, no conclusion could be drawn with regard to the femoral side. It can be concluded that the concept of restoration of the anatomical hip center of rotation is paramount for good outcome and better survival of the implant is important when using uncemented cups with a bone graft. In addition, screw augmentation for fixation is not recommended unless absolutely necessary. The most common complications were aseptic loosening and heterotopic ossification. While the former required revision, conservative management was administered for the latter.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    369 219

    Development of Prediction Model for 1-year Mortality after Hip Fracture Surgery

    Konstantinos Alexiou, MD, PhD , Antonios A. Koutalos, MD, PhD , Sokratis Varitimidis, MD, PhD* , Theofilos Karachalios, MD, PhD* , Konstantinos N. Malizos, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 135-143
    Purpose: Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality. The identification of risk factors of mortality could improve patient care. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors of mortality after surgery for a hip fracture and construct a mortality model.
    Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted on patients with hip fractures at two institutions. Five hundred and ninety-seven patients with hip fractures that were treated in the tertiary hospital, and another 147 patients that were treated in a secondary hospital. The perioperative data were collected from medical charts and interviews. Functional Assessment Measure score, Short Form-12 and mortality were recorded at 12 months. Patients and surgery variables that were associated with increased mortality were used to develop a mortality model.
    Results: Mortality for the whole cohort was 19.4% at one year. From the variables tested only age >80 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists category, time to surgery (>48 hours), Charlson comorbidity index, sex, use of anti-coagulants, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 were associated with increased mortality and used to construct the mortality model. The area under the curve for the prediction model was 0.814. Functional outcome at one year was similar to preoperative status, even though their level of physical function dropped after the hip surgery and slowly recovered.
    Conclusion: The mortality prediction model that was developed in this study calculates the risk of death at one year for patients with hip fractures, is simple, and could detect high risk patients that need special management.
Vol.36 No.2 Jun 01, 2024, pp. 77~160
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