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  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    1402 372

    Pathophysiology and Treatment of Gout Arthritis; including Gout Arthritis of Hip Joint: A Literature Review

    Yonghan Cha, MD , Jongwon Lee, MD , Wonsik Choy, MD , Jae Sun Lee, PhD*,† , Hyun Hee Lee, MD , Dong-Sik Chae, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 1-11
    Gout is triggered by the accumulation of uric acid in the body, leading to hyperuricemia. Genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors can influence this condition. Excessive uric acid buildup results in the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which precipitate in specific areas of the body, including the joints, where they can cause symptoms of gout. While the acute and chronic symptoms of gout have been well-documented, diagnosis of gout affecting the hip joint poses significant challenges. The global incidence of gout, the most prevalent form of inflammatory arthritis, is on the rise. Evaluation of the clinical signs, laboratory results, and imaging results is generally required for diagnosis of gout in cases where MSU crystals have not been detected. Hyperuricemia is considered a primary cause of arthritis symptoms, and comprehensive guidelines for treatment are available. Therefore, the choice of medication is straightforward, and moderate effectiveness of treatment has been demonstrated. Gout is a chronic disease, requiring lifelong uric acid-lowering medications, thus application of a treatment strategy based on the target blood uric acid concentration is necessary. Consequently, cases of gout will likely be observed more frequently by hip surgeons in clinical scenarios in the future. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pathophysiology of gout and subsequently examine recent advances in diagnostic methods and therapeutic agents based on an understanding of its underlying mechanisms. In addition, literature on gout-related issues affecting the hip joint, providing a useful reference for hip surgeons is examined.
  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    759 208

    Total Hip Arthroplasty in Protrusio Acetabuli: A Systematic Review

    Sajid Ansari, MCh , Kshitij Gupta, MS , Tushar Gupta, MS , Balgovind S. Raja, MCh* , Pranav J., MBBS , Roop Bhushan Kalia, MS

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 12-25
    Protrusio acetabuli, or abnormal protrusion of the femoral head into the acetabulum, requires performance of a total hip arthroplasty (THA) for which various reconstruction techniques and outcomes have been described. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence, evaluate treatment efficacy, compare surgical techniques, and identify topics for future research along with improving evidence-based decision-making, improving patient outcomes in the management of this condition. A thorough systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and Scopus library was conducted, and articles describing techniques of THA for treatment of protrusion acetabuli were extracted. The initial search generated 751 results. After exclusion, 18 articles were included. Of these, eight were prospective studies and 10 were retrospective. Surgery was performed on 783 hips with a mean age of 60 years; 80% of females who mostly had inflammatory arthritis were followed up for 8.86 years (range, 2-15.4 years). Good outcomes have been achieved with THA using uncemented cups with bone graft; however, no conclusion could be drawn with regard to the femoral side. It can be concluded that the concept of restoration of the anatomical hip center of rotation is paramount for good outcome and better survival of the implant is important when using uncemented cups with a bone graft. In addition, screw augmentation for fixation is not recommended unless absolutely necessary. The most common complications were aseptic loosening and heterotopic ossification. While the former required revision, conservative management was administered for the latter.
  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    729 228

    The Value of Computed Tomography Scan in Three-dimensional Planning and Intraoperative Navigation in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Fabio Mancino, MD , Andreas Fontalis, MD, MSc (Res), MRCS (Eng) , Ahmed Magan, BM, BSc (Hons), MRCS, FRCS (Tra&Orth) , Ricci Plastow, MBChB, FRCS (Eng) , Fares S. Haddad, BSc, MD (Res), MCh (Orth), FRCS (Orth), FFSEM

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 26-36
    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a frequently performed procedure; the objective is restoration of native hip biomechanics and achieving functional range of motion (ROM) through precise positioning of the prosthetic components. Advanced three-dimensional (3D) imaging and computed tomography (CT)-based navigation are valuable tools in both the preoperative planning and intraoperative execution. The aim of this study is to provide a thorough overview on the applications of CT scans in both the preoperative and intraoperative settings of primary THA. Preoperative planning using CT-based 3D imaging enables greater accuracy in prediction of implant sizes, leading to enhancement of surgical workflow with optimization of implant inventory. Surgeons can perform a more thorough assessment of posterior and anterior acetabular wall coverage, acetabular osteophytes, anatomical landmarks, and thus achieve more functional implant positioning. Intraoperative CT-based navigation can facilitate precise execution of the preoperative plan, to attain optimal positioning of the prosthetic components to avoid impingement. Medial reaming can be minimized preserving native bone stock, which can enable restoration of femoral, acetabular, and combined offsets. In addition, it is associated with greater accuracy in leg length adjustment, a critical factor in patients’ postoperative satisfaction. Despite the higher costs and radiation exposure, which currently limits its widespread adoption, it offers many benefits, and the increasing interest in robotic surgery has facilitated its integration into routine practice. Conducting additional research on ultra-low-dose CT scans and examining the potential for translation of 3D imaging into improved clinical outcomes will be necessary to warrant its expanded application.
  • Original ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    720 259

    Treatment of Osteoporosis after Hip Fracture: Survey of the Korean Hip Society

    Jung-Wee Park, MD , Je-Hyun Yoo, MD* , Young-Kyun Lee, MD , Jong-Seok Park, MD , Ye-Yeon Won, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 62-69
    Purpose: To assess current practice in the treatment of osteoporosis in patients who underwent treatment for hip fracture in South Korea.
    Materials and Methods: A survey of 97 members of the Korean Hip Society, orthopedic hip surgeons who administer treatment for hip fractures in South Korea, was conducted. The survey was conducted for assessment of demographic data and perceptions regarding the management of osteoporosis in patients who have undergone treatment for hip fracture. Analysis of the data was performed using descriptive statistical methods.
    Results: The majority of participants were between the age of 41 and 50 years, and 74% were practicing in tertiary hospitals. Testing for serum vitamin D levels (82%) was the most commonly performed laboratory test. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed for more than 80% of patients by 47% and 52% of participants, respectively. Denosumab was the most commonly used first-line treatment option for osteoporosis in hip fracture patients. Bisphosphonate was most often perceived as the cause of atypical femoral fractures, and the most appropriate time for reoperation was postoperative 12 months. Teriparatide was most preferred after cessation of bisphosphonate and only prescribing calcium and vitamin D was most common in high-risk patients for prevention of atypical femoral fracture.
    Conclusion: The results of this study that surveyed orthopedic hip surgeons showed that most participants followed the current strategy for management of osteoporosis. Because the end result of osteoporosis is a bone fracture, active involvement of orthopedic surgeons is important in treating this condition.
  • Original ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    594 159

    Mid-term Results of Total Hip Arthroplasty for Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis after Acetabular Fracture

    Sharath K. Ramanath, MS, DNB , Tejas Tribhuvan, MS* , Uday Chandran, MS , Rahul Hemant Shah, MS* , Ajay Kaushik, MS* , Sandesh Patil, MS*

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 37-46
    Purpose: The prognosis of total hip replacement (THR) after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) versus THR following non-operative treatment of acetabular fractures is unclear. Few studies have been conducted in this regard. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to perform an assessment and compare the functional outcomes for study subjects in the ORIF and non-ORIF groups during the follow-up period compared to baseline.
    Materials and Methods: This longitudinal comparative study, which included 40 patients who underwent THR for either posttraumatic arthritis after fixation of an acetabular fracture or arthritis following conservative management of a fracture, was conducted for 60 months. Twenty-four patients had undergone ORIF, and 16 patients had undergone nonoperative/conservative management for acetabular fractures. Following THR, the patients were followed up for monitoring of functional outcomes for the Harris hip score (HHS) and comparison between the ORIF and non-ORIF groups was performed.
    Results: The HHS showed significant improvement in both ORIF and non-ORIF groups. At the end of the mean follow-up period, no significant variation in scores was observed between the groups, i.e., ORIF group (91.61±6.64) compared to non-ORIF group (85.74±11.56). A significantly higher number of re-interventions were required for medial wall fractures and combined fractures compared to posterior fractures (P<0.05).
    Conclusion: THR resulted in improved functional outcome during follow-up in both the groups; however, the ORIF group was observed to have better functional outcome. Re-intervention was not required for any of the posterior fractures at the end of the mean follow-up period.
  • Original ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    512 126

    Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism after Immediate Screening in Hip Fracture Patients

    Yoon-Vin Kim, MD , Joo-Hyoun Song, MD, PhD , Young-Wook Lim, MD, PhD , Woo-Lam Jo, MD, PhD , Seung-Hun Ha, MD , Kee-Haeng Lee, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 47-54
    Purpose: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major complication for hip fracture patients, and may exist preoperatively. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of VTE after immediate screening in hip fracture patients.
    Materials and Methods: Hip fracture patients with an elevated level of D-dimer underwent screening for VTE using computed tomography (CT) angiography. Anticoagulation treatments were administered preoperatively to patients diagnosed with VTE, followed by administration of additional anticoagulation postoperatively. Medical records were reviewed to identify risk factors for preoperative VTE and determine the prognosis of the patients.
    Results: Among 524 hip fracture patients, 66 patients (12.6%) were diagnosed with VTE, including 42 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), 17 patients with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), and 7 patients with both DVT and PTE. Of the patients with VTE, 68.2% were diagnosed within 24 hours of injury, and 33.3% of these patients had PTE. VTE patients showed a tendency toward being overweight (P<0.01) and not on anticoagulant medication (P=0.02) compared to patients without VTE. The risk of VTE was higher for femur shaft fractures (odds ratio [OR] 4.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-10.69) and overweight patients (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.17-3.85), and lower for patients who were previously on anticoagulants (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18-0.74). Patients with preoperatively diagnosed VTE were asymptomatic before and after surgery.
    Conclusion: Clinicians should be aware that VTE may be present within 24 hours of injury, and screening for VTE or prophylactic measures should be considered for high-risk patients.
  • Original ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    492 130

    Bone Health Evaluations and Secondary Fragility Fractures in Hip Fracture Patients

    Emily M. Pflug, MD , Ariana Lott, MD , Sanjit R. Konda, MD , Philipp Leucht, MD, PhD , Nirmal Tejwani, MD , Kenneth A. Egol, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 55-61
    Purpose: This study sought to examine the utilization of bone health evaluations in geriatric hip fracture patients and identify risk factors for the development of future fragility fractures.
    Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of patients ≥55 years who underwent surgical management of a hip fracture between September 2015 and July 2019 were identified. Chart review was performed to evaluate post-injury follow-up, performance of a bone health evaluation, and use of osteoporosis-related diagnostic and pharmacologic treatment.
    Results: A total of 832 patients were included. The mean age of the patients was 81.2±9.9 years. Approximately 21% of patients underwent a comprehensive bone health evaluation. Of this cohort, 64.7% were started on pharmacologic therapy, and 73 patients underwent bone mineral density testing. Following discharge from the hospital, 70.3% of the patients followed-up on an outpatient basis with 95.7% seeing orthopedic surgery for post-fracture care. Overall, 102 patients (12.3%) sustained additional fragility fractures within two years, and 31 of these patients (3.7%) sustained a second hip fracture. There was no difference in the rate of second hip fractures or other additional fragility fractures based on the use of osteoporosis medications.
    Conclusion: Management of osteoporosis in geriatric hip fracture patients could be improved. Outpatient follow-up post-hip fracture is almost 70%, yet a minority of patients were started on osteoporosis medications and many sustained additional fragility fractures. The findings of this study indicate that orthopedic surgeons have an opportunity to lead the charge in treatment of osteoporosis in the post-fracture setting.
  • Review ArticleMarch 31, 2023

    473 170

    Looking beyond Piriformis Syndrome: Is It Really the Piriformis?

    Shivam Sharma, B.Ph.T , Harmanpreet Kaur, Nishank Verma, M.Ph.T, Bibek Adhya, M.Ph.T

    Hip Pelvis 2023; 35(1): 1-5
    Piriformis syndrome is a common differential diagnosis related to sciatica. The following review provides a concise synopsis of the diagnosis, management, history, and alternatives to diagnosis of piriformis syndrome. A search of the literature for research articles related to piriformis syndrome and associated differential diagnosis of sciatica was conducted. A thorough review of the included articles found that the condition known as piriformis syndrome is over-diagnosed and that potential anatomic and biomechanical variations originating in the pelvic region might be related to the complaint of sciatica. The criteria for diagnosis are based on findings from both physical examination and radio imaging. Piriformis syndrome resembles a variety of clinical conditions; therefore, conduct of future studies should include development of a validated method for evaluation as well as clinical criteria for diagnosis of piriformis syndrome.
  • Case ReportMarch 1, 2024

    447 83

    Stress Fracture after Arthroscopic Lesser Trochanter Resection: Diagnosis and Therapy

    Matthieu Baert, MD , Maxence Vandekerckhove, MD , Jan Vanlommel, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 70-75
    We report on the case of a 52-year-old female who presented with a stress fracture after undergoing an endoscopic resection of the lesser trochanter in ischiofemoral impingement, which was resistant to maximal conservative treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this complication has not been previously described. Non–weight-bearing and intravenous alendronic acid were prescribed for management. No additional surgery was required. The patient was pain free with the ability to perform sports on the same level as before and had no complaints.
  • Review ArticleSeptember 30, 2023

    432 169

    Updating Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    Young-Seung Ko, MD* , Joo Hyung Ha, MD , Jung-Wee Park, MD* , Young-Kyun Lee, MD* , Tae-Young Kim, MD , Kyung-Hoi Koo, MD*,§

    Hip Pelvis 2023; 35(3): 147-156
    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), a condition characterized by the presence of a necrotic bone lesion in the femoral head, is caused by a disruption in the blood supply. Its occurrence is more common in young and middle-aged adults and it is the main reason for performance of total hip arthroplasty in this age group. Its incidence is increasing along with increased use of glucocorticoids for management of adjuvant therapy for treatment of leukemia as well as organ transplantation and other myelogenous diseases. Current information on etiology and pathogenesis, as well as natural history, stage system, and treatments is provided in this review. A description of the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) criteria for classification of glucocorticoids- and alcohol-associated ONFH, 2019 ARCO staging system, and 2021 ARCO classification using computed tomography for the early stages of ONFH is also provided.
Vol.36 No.2 Jun 01, 2024, pp. 77~160
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Hip & Pelvis