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  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2010

    3 102 18

    Surgical Treatment of Femur Intertrochanteric and Subtrochanteric Fracture

    Jong-Oh Kim, MD, Tae-Ho Kim, MD*

    J Korean Hip Soc 2010; 22(1): 1-12
    Abstract
    Femur intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures are extracapsular hip fractures and they show a bimodal age distribution. Most hip fractures in young patient are subtrochanteric or basicervical fractures that are caused by high energy injury. Most of the hip fractures in old patients are intertrochanteric fractures related to osteoporosis and low energy injury. For proximal hip fractures, the muscles around the hip joint make reduction difficult and the position of the lag screws affects healing of the fracture. To lower the complications of these fractures, surgeons can use an appropriate implant along with performing good reduction and good lag screw positioning. We report here on our review of femur intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures, the characteristics of compression hip screws, the intramedullary devices and the technical pitfalls.
  • Review ArticleMarch 1, 2024

    0 763 209

    Total Hip Arthroplasty in Protrusio Acetabuli: A Systematic Review

    Sajid Ansari, MCh , Kshitij Gupta, MS , Tushar Gupta, MS , Balgovind S. Raja, MCh* , Pranav J., MBBS , Roop Bhushan Kalia, MS

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(1): 12-25
    Abstract
    Protrusio acetabuli, or abnormal protrusion of the femoral head into the acetabulum, requires performance of a total hip arthroplasty (THA) for which various reconstruction techniques and outcomes have been described. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current evidence, evaluate treatment efficacy, compare surgical techniques, and identify topics for future research along with improving evidence-based decision-making, improving patient outcomes in the management of this condition. A thorough systematic review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, and Scopus library was conducted, and articles describing techniques of THA for treatment of protrusion acetabuli were extracted. The initial search generated 751 results. After exclusion, 18 articles were included. Of these, eight were prospective studies and 10 were retrospective. Surgery was performed on 783 hips with a mean age of 60 years; 80% of females who mostly had inflammatory arthritis were followed up for 8.86 years (range, 2-15.4 years). Good outcomes have been achieved with THA using uncemented cups with bone graft; however, no conclusion could be drawn with regard to the femoral side. It can be concluded that the concept of restoration of the anatomical hip center of rotation is paramount for good outcome and better survival of the implant is important when using uncemented cups with a bone graft. In addition, screw augmentation for fixation is not recommended unless absolutely necessary. The most common complications were aseptic loosening and heterotopic ossification. While the former required revision, conservative management was administered for the latter.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 110 46

    Spinopelvic Motion: A Simplified Approach to a Complex Subject

    Cale A. Pagan, MD , Theofilos Karasavvidis, MD , Jonathan M. Vigdorchik, MD , Charles A. DeCook, MD*

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 77-86
    Abstract
    Knowledge of the relationship between the hip and spine is essential in the effort to minimize instability and improve outcomes following total hip arthroplasty (THA). A detailed yet straightforward preoperative imaging workup can provide valuable information on pelvic positioning, which may be helpful for optimum placement of the acetabular cup. For a streamlined preoperative assessment of THA candidates, classification systems with a capacity for providing a more personalized approach to performance of THA have been introduced. Familiarity with these systems and their clinical application is important in the effort to optimize component placement and reduce the risk of instability. Looking ahead, the principles of the hip-spine relationship are being integrated using emerging innovative technologies, promising further streamlining of the evaluation process.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 145 94

    Robotic-assisted Total Hip Arthroplasty and Spinopelvic Parameters: A Review

    Steven J. Rice, DO, MS , Anthony D’Abarno, DO* , Hue H. Luu, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 87-100
    Abstract
    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis, and the popularity of the direct anterior approach has increased due to more rapid recovery and increased stability. Instability, commonly caused by component malposition, remains a significant concern. The dynamic relationship between the pelvis and lumbar spine, deemed spinopelvic motion, is considered an important factor in stability. Various parameters are used in evaluating spinopelvic motion. Understanding spinopelvic motion is critical, and executing a precise plan for positioning the implant can be difficult with manual instrumentation. Robotic and/or navigation systems have been developed in the effort to enhance THA outcomes and for implementing spinopelvic parameters. These systems can be classified into three categories: X-ray/fluoroscopy-based, imageless, and computed tomography (CT)-based. Each system has advantages and limitations. When using CT-based systems, preoperative CT scans are used to assist with preoperative planning and intraoperative execution, providing feedback on implant position and restoration of hip biomechanics within a functional safe zone developed according to each patient’s specific spinopelvic parameters. Several studies have demonstrated the accuracy and reproducibility of robotic systems with regard to implant positioning and leg length discrepancy. Some studies have reported better radiographic and clinical outcomes with use of robotic-assisted THA. However, clinical outcomes comparable to those for manual THA have also been reported. Robotic systems offer advantages in terms of accuracy, precision, and potentially reduced rates of dislocation. Additional research, including conduct of randomized controlled trials, will be required in order to evaluate the long-term outcomes and cost-effectiveness of robotic-assisted THA.
  • Review ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 98 37

    Management of Severe Bone Defects in Femoral Revision following Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Yicheng Li, PhD , Li Cao, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 101-107
    Abstract
    Treatment of femoral bone defects continues to be a challenge in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA); therefore, meticulous preoperative evaluation of patients and surgical planning are required. This review provides a concise synopsis of the etiology, classification, treatment strategy, and prosthesis selection in relation to femoral bone loss in revision THA. A search of literature was conducted for identification of research articles related to classification of bone loss, management of femoral revision, and comparison of different types of stems. Findings of a thorough review of the included articles were as follows: (1) the Paprosky classification system is used most often when defining femoral bone loss, (2) a primary-length fully coated monoblock femoral component is recommended for treatment of types I or II bone defects, (3) use of an extensively porouscoated stem and a modular fluted tapered stem is recommended for management of types III or IV bone defects, and (4) use of an impaction grafting technique is another option for improvement of bone stock, and allograft prosthesis composite and proximal femoral replacement can be applied by experienced surgeons, in selected cases, as a final salvage solution. Stems with a tapered design are gradually replacing components with a cylindrical design as the first choice for femoral revision; however, further confirmation regarding the advantages and disadvantages of modular and nonmodular stems will be required through conduct of higher-level comparative studies.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 150 49

    Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty with Mechanical Prophylaxis in Hong Kong Chinese

    Daniel Wai-Yip Wong, MBBS, MPH, ChM, FRCSEd , Qunn-Jid Lee, MBChB, FRCSEd , Chi-Kin Lo, MBBS, MSc, FRCSEd , Kenneth Wing-Kin Law, MBChB, FRCSEd , Dawn Hei Wong, BJC (Hons)

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 108-119
    Abstract
    Purpose: The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) without chemoprophylaxis could be as high as 50% in Caucasians. However, according to several subsequent studies, the incidence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) in Asians was much lower. The routine use of chemoprophylaxis, which could potentially cause increased bleeding, infection, and wound complications, has been questioned in low-incidence populations. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of VTE after primary THA without chemoprophylaxis in an Asian population using a fast-track rehabilitation protocol and to verify the safety profile for use of ‘mechanical prophylaxis alone’ in patients with standard risk of VTE.
    Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 542 Hong Kong Chinese patients who underwent primary THA without chemoprophylaxis. All patients received intermittent pneumatic compression and graduated compression stockings as mechanical prophylaxis. Multimodal pain management was applied in order to facilitate early mobilisation. Routine duplex ultrasonography was performed between the fourth and seventh postoperative day for detection of proximal DVT.
    Results: All patients were Chinese (mean age, 63.0±11.9 years). Six patients developed proximal DVT (incidence rate, 1.1%). None of the patients had symptomatic or fatal pulmonary embolism.
    Conclusion: The incidence of VTE after primary THA without chemical prophylaxis can be low in Asian populations when following a fast-track rehabilitation protocol. Mechanical prophylaxis alone can be regarded as a reasonably safe practice in terms of a balanced benefit-to-risk ratio for Asian patients with standard risk of VTE.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 92 38

    Comparison of Short Curved Stems and Standard-length Single Wedged Stems for Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Chan Young Lee, MD , Sheng-Yu Jin, MD , Ji Hoon Choi, MD , Taek-Rim Yoon, MD, PhD , Kyung-Soon Park, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 120-128
    Abstract
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes with use of short-curved stems versus standard-length single wedged stems over a minimum follow-up period of five years.
    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of primary total hip arthroplasties performed using the Fitmore® stem (127 hips, 122 patients) and the M/L taper® stem (195 hips, 187 patients) between October 2012 and June 2014 was conducted. The clinical and radiographic outcomes were obtained for evaluation over a minimum follow-up period of five years.
    Results: In both the Fitmore® and M/L taper® groups, the mean Harris hip score improved from 52.4 and 48.9 preoperatively to 93.3 and 94.5 at the final follow-up, respectively (P=0.980). The mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores also improved from 73.3 and 76.8 preoperatively to 22.9 and 25.6 at the final follow-up, respectively (P=0.465). Fifteen hips (Fitmore®: 14 hips; M/L taper®: one hip, P<0.001) developed intraoperative cracks and were treated simultaneously with cerclage wiring. Radiography showed a radiolucent line in 24 hips in the Fitmore® group and 12 hips in the M/L taper® group (P=0.125). Cortical hypertrophy was detected in 29 hips (Fitmore® group: 28 hips; M/L taper® group: one hip, P<0.001).
    Conclusion: Similarly favorable clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved with use of both short-curved stems and standard-length single wedged stems. However, higher cortical hypertrophy and a higher rate of femoral crack were observed with use of Fitmore® stems.
  • Review ArticleSeptember 30, 2022

    2 189 39
    Abstract
    There is still controversy regarding clinical outcomes following primary hip arthroplasty after solid organ transplantation (SOT). The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical outcomes after hip arthroplasty differ between previous SOT recipients and control subjects with no history of undergoing SOT. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies comparing the clinical outcomes after hip arthroplasty following SOT published up to January 5, 2022. A comparison of medical and surgery-related complications, as well as the readmission rate and 90-day mortality rate between previous SOT recipients and control subjects was performed. Subgroup analyses of the SOT types, liver transplantation (LT) and kidney transplantation (KT), were also performed. Ten studies that included 3,631,861 cases of primary hip arthroplasty were included; among these, 14,996 patients had previously undergone SOT and 3,616,865 patients had not. Significantly higher incidences of cardiac complications, pneumonia, and acute kidney injury were observed in the SOT group compared with the control group. Regarding surgical complications, a higher transfusion rate was observed in the SOT group. The readmission rate and 90-day mortality rate were also significantly higher in the SOT group. A significantly higher incidence of deep vein thrombosis was observed in the KT subgroup compared with the control group. A higher risk of medical and surgical complications, as well as higher readmission and mortality rates after hip arthroplasty was observed for previous SOT recipients compared to patients with no history of SOT.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 80 26

    Surgeon’s Experience and Accuracy of Preoperative Digital Templating in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Maria Surroca, MD*,† , Silvia Miguela, MD*,† , Agustí Bartra-Ylla, MD*,† , Jorge H. Nuñez, PhD*,† , Francesc Angles-Crespo, MD*,†

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 129-134
    Abstract
    Purpose: Preoperative planning has become essential in performance of total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, data regarding the effect of the planner’s experience on the accuracy of digital preoperative planning is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of digital templating in THA based on the surgeon’s experience.
    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. An analysis of 98 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, which were individually templated by four surgeons (two hip surgeons and two orthopaedic residents) using TraumaCad® digital planning, was performed. A comparison of preoperatively planned sizes with implanted sizes was performed to evaluate the accuracy of predicting component size. The results of preoperative planning performed by hip surgeons and orthopaedic residents were compared for testing of the planner’s experience.
    Results: Femoral stem was precisely predicted in 32.4% of cases, acetabular component in 40.3%, and femoral offset in 76.7%. Prediction of cup size showed greater accuracy than femoral size among all observers. No differences in any variable were observed among the four groups (acetabular cup P=0.07, femoral stem P=0.82, femoral offset P=0.06). All measurements showed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] acetabular cup: 0.76, ICC femoral stem: 0.79).
    Conclusion: The results of this study might suggest that even though a surgeon’s experience supports improved precision during the planning stage, it should not be restricted only to surgeons with a high level of experience. We consider preoperative planning an essential part of the surgery, which should be included in training for orthopaedics residents.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 93 38

    Development of Prediction Model for 1-year Mortality after Hip Fracture Surgery

    Konstantinos Alexiou, MD, PhD , Antonios A. Koutalos, MD, PhD , Sokratis Varitimidis, MD, PhD* , Theofilos Karachalios, MD, PhD* , Konstantinos N. Malizos, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 135-143
    Abstract
    Purpose: Hip fractures are associated with increased mortality. The identification of risk factors of mortality could improve patient care. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors of mortality after surgery for a hip fracture and construct a mortality model.
    Materials and Methods: A cohort study was conducted on patients with hip fractures at two institutions. Five hundred and ninety-seven patients with hip fractures that were treated in the tertiary hospital, and another 147 patients that were treated in a secondary hospital. The perioperative data were collected from medical charts and interviews. Functional Assessment Measure score, Short Form-12 and mortality were recorded at 12 months. Patients and surgery variables that were associated with increased mortality were used to develop a mortality model.
    Results: Mortality for the whole cohort was 19.4% at one year. From the variables tested only age >80 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists category, time to surgery (>48 hours), Charlson comorbidity index, sex, use of anti-coagulants, and body mass index <25 kg/m2 were associated with increased mortality and used to construct the mortality model. The area under the curve for the prediction model was 0.814. Functional outcome at one year was similar to preoperative status, even though their level of physical function dropped after the hip surgery and slowly recovered.
    Conclusion: The mortality prediction model that was developed in this study calculates the risk of death at one year for patients with hip fractures, is simple, and could detect high risk patients that need special management.
  • Original ArticleJune 1, 2024

    0 86 30

    Comparative Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Medical Expenses in Patients with Intertrochanteric Fracture Who Underwent Internal Fixation and Hemiarthroplasty

    Seung-Hoon Kim, MD , Yonghan Cha, MD* , Suk-Yong Jang, MD , Bo-Yeon Kim, PhD , Hyo-Jung Lee, BSN§ , Gui-Ok Kim, BSN§

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 144-154
    Abstract
    Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess postoperative direct medical expenses and medical utilization of elderly patients who underwent either hemiarthroplasty (HA) or internal fixation (IF) for treatment of a femoral intertrochanteric fracture and to analyze differences according to surgical methods and age groups.
    Materials and Methods: Data from the 2011 to 2018 Korean National Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service database were used. Risk-set matching was performed for selection of controls representing patients with the same sex, age, and year of surgery. A comparative interrupted time series analysis was performed for evaluation of differences in medical expenses and utilization between the two groups.
    Results: A total of 10,405 patients who underwent IF surgery and 10,405 control patients who underwent HA surgery were included. Medical expenses were 18% lower in the IF group compared to the HA group during the first year after the fracture (difference-in-difference [DID] estimate ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-0.87, P<0.001), and 9% lower in the second year (DID estimate ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.99, P=0.018). Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the IF group compared to the HA group during the first two years after time zero in the age ≥80 group.
    Conclusion: A noticeable increase in medical expenses was observed for patients who underwent HA for treatment of intertrochanteric fractures compared to those who underwent IF over a two-year period after surgery. Therefore, consideration of such findings is critical when designing healthcare policy support for management of intertrochanteric fractures.
  • Case ReportJune 1, 2024

    0 85 27

    Periprosthetic Acetabular Fracture after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Report on Two Cases

    Joonkyoo Kang, MD , Chan Young Lee, MD , Taek-Rim Yoon, MD, PhD , Kyung-Soon Park, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2024; 36(2): 155-160
    We report two cases of postoperative total hip arthroplasty periprostehtic fracture of the acetabulum which treated by open reduction with internal fixation without acetabular cup revision. From these cases, we should consider open reduction with internal fixation as the first treatment option in cases where spot welding of the cup to the host bone is observed.
  • Review ArticleDecember 31, 2022

    6 236 121

    Management of Osteoporosis Medication after Osteoporotic Fracture

    Young Kwang Oh, MD, Nam Hoon Moon, MD, PhD*, Won Chul Shin, MD, PhD

    Hip Pelvis 2022; 34(4): 191-202
    Abstract
    The aim of this study was to provide helpful information for use in selection of an appropriate medication after osteoporotic fractures through conduct of a literature review. In addition, a review of the recommendations of several societies for prevention of subsequent fractures was performed and the appropriate choice of medication for treatment of atypical femur fractures was examined. Clinical perspective was obtained and an updated search of literature was conducted across PubMed and MEDLINE and relevant articles were selected. The articles were selected manually according to relevance, and the references for identified articles and reviews were also evaluated for relevance. The following areas are reviewed: Commonly prescribed osteoporosis medications: BPs (bisphosphonates), denosumab, and SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators) in antiresorptive medications and recombinant human parathyroid hormone teriparatide, recently approved Romosuzumab in anabolic agents, clinical practice guidelines for the management of osteoporosis, osteoporotic fracture, and atypical femur fracture. Most medications for treatment of osteoporosis do not delay fracture healing and the positive effect of teriparatide on fracture healing has been confirmed. In cases where an osteoporotic fracture is diagnosed, risk assessment should be performed for selection of very high-risk patients in order to prevent subsequent fractures, and administration of anabolic agents is recommended.
  • Original ArticleDecember 31, 2023

    0 350 83

    Open Reduction and Internal Fixation for Vancouver B1 and B2 Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures: A Proportional Meta-Analysis

    Byung-Ho Yoon, MD , Seong Gyun Park, MD , Young Hak Roh, MD

    Hip Pelvis 2023; 35(4): 217-227
    Abstract
    Purpose: Periprosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty, and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a common surgical treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of ORIF in patients with different fracture patterns (Vancouver B1 and B2).
    Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed from inception to August 2022. We conducted a pair-wise meta-analysis (with a fixed-effects model) on the 10 comparative studies and a proportional meta-analysis on the data from the 39 articles to determine a consensus. The outcomes were the incidence of reoperations that included osteosynthesis, irrigation/debridement and revision arthroplasty.
    Results: The pair-wise meta-analysis showed similar outcomes between two groups; the risk of reoperation (odds ratio [OR]=0.82, confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.55, P=0.542), nonunion (OR=0.49; CI 0.22-1.10, P=0.085) and deep infection (OR=1.89, CI 0.48-7.46, P=0.361). In proportion meta-analysis, pooled prevalence of reoperation was 9% (95% CI, 6-12) in B1 and 8% (95% CI, 2-15) in B2 (heterogeneity between two groups (Q), P=0.772). The pooled prevalence of nonunion was same as of 4% in B1 and B2 (Q, P=0.678), and deep infection was 2% (95% CI, 1-3) in B1 and 4% (95% CI, 2-7) in B2 (Q, P=0.130).
    Conclusion: ORIF is a feasible treatment for B1 and B2 periprosthetic femoral fractures, with acceptable outcomes in terms of, nonunion and infection. The results of this study would help clinicians and provide baseline data for further studies validating PFF.
  • Original ArticleDecember 31, 2023

    0 332 68

    Variation of Practice in Prophylactic Protocol to Reduce Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: A National Survey in the United Kingdom

    James Morris, MBBS, BSc (Hons), MRCS , Lee Hoggett, MBChB (Hons), PG Cert, MRCS, FHEA , Sophie Rogers, MBChB, BSc (Hons), MRCS , John Ranson, MBChB, BSc (Hons), MRCS , Andrew Sloan, MB BCh, MRCS, FRCS (Tr & Orth), RCPath ME

    Hip Pelvis 2023; 35(4): 228-232
    Abstract
    Purpose: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has an enormous physiological and psychological burden on patients. Surgeons rightly wish to minimise this risk. It has been shown that a standardised, evidence-based approach to perioperative care leads to better patient outcomes. A review of current practice was conducted using a cross-sectional survey among surgeons at multiple centers nationwide.
    Materials and Methods: An 11-question electronic survey was circulated to hip and knee arthroplasty consultants nationally via the BOA (British Orthopaedic Association) e-newsletter.
    Results: The respondents included 56 consultants working across 19 different trusts. Thirty-four (60.7%) screen patients for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) preoperatively, with 19 (55.9%) would treating with antibiotics. Fifty-six (100%) screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and treat if positive. Only 15 (26.8%) screen for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) or empirically eradicate. Zero (0%) routinely catheterise patients perioperatively. Forty-one (73.2%) would give intramuscular or intravenous gentamicin for a perioperative catheterisation. All surgeons use laminar flow theatres. Twenty-six (46.4%) use only an impervious gown, 6 (10.7%) exhaust pipes, and 24 (42.3%) surgical helmet system. Five different antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens are used 9 (16.1%) cefuroxime, 2 (3.6%) flucloxacillin, 19 (33.9%) flucloxacillin and gentamicin, 10 (17.9%) teicoplanin, 16 (28.6%) teicoplanin and gentamicin. Twenty-two (39.3%) routinely give further doses.
    Conclusion: ASB screening, treatment and intramuscular gentamicin for perioperative catheterisation is routinely practiced despite no supporting evidence base. MSSA screening and treatment is underutilised. Multiple antibiotic regimens exist despite little variation in organisms in PJI. Practice varies between surgeons and centers, we should all be practicing evidence-based medicine.
H&P
Vol.36 No.2 Jun 01, 2024, pp. 77~160
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